What is a Cappuccino?

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In the vibrant world of coffee, the cappuccino stands out as a timeless and beloved espresso-based drink that has charmed coffee lovers for generations.

With its rich espresso foundation and velvety layers of steamed milk and froth, the cappuccino offers a harmonious balance of boldness and creaminess.

In this Coffee Expert guide, we’ll explore the origins, characteristics, and variations of the cappuccino, helping you better understand and appreciate this delightful coffee classic.

The Origins of the Cappuccino

Italian Beginnings

The cappuccino has its roots in Italy, where it was first crafted in the early 20th century. The drink takes its name from the Capuchin friars, whose brown robes and white hoods are said to resemble the colour and foam cap of the cappuccino.

Global Expansion

Over the past century, the cappuccino has gained popularity around the world, becoming a staple in coffee shops and cafes from Rome to Melbourne.

The Components of a Cappuccino


The foundation of a cappuccino is a single or double shot of espresso, which provides the bold coffee flavour and aroma that characterises the beverage.

Steamed Milk

Steamed milk is the second component of a cappuccino, delivering a smooth, velvety texture and a subtle natural sweetness. The milk should be steamed to a microfoam consistency, with a focus on incorporating the froth into the milk to create a uniform, silky texture.

Milk Froth

Milk froth is the final component of a cappuccino, forming a light, airy layer on top of the drink. The froth adds a delicate creaminess and visually distinguishes the cappuccino from other espresso-based beverages.

Drinking/Shaved Chocolate (optional)

In Australia, the cappuccino is almost always topped with a sprinkle of drinking chocolate powder, or shaved chocolate to add extra sweetness to the beverage. However, topping the froth with chocolate is not usually done in other counries, such as Italy.

The Classic Cappuccino Ratio

Equal Parts

The traditional cappuccino is composed of equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and milk froth. This ratio creates a balanced and harmonious flavour profile that allows the coffee and milk components to shine.


A classic cappuccino is typically served in a 150-180ml (5-6 oz) cup, ensuring that the espresso-to-milk ratio remains consistent and the drink maintains its characteristic texture and flavour.

How to Make a Cappuccino

1. Pull Your Espresso Shots

Begin by pulling a single or double shot of espresso using freshly ground coffee beans. Aim for a rich and balanced extraction, as the espresso will provide the core coffee flavour in your cappuccino.

2. Steam the Milk

Steam the milk to create a silky, microfoam consistency, being careful not to overheat or over-froth the milk. You should have approximately equal amounts of steamed milk and milk froth.

3. Assemble the Cappuccino

Pour the steamed milk over the espresso shot, ensuring that the milk and espresso mix evenly. Then, carefully spoon the milk froth on top of the drink, creating a light, airy layer that distinguishes the cappuccino from other espresso-based beverages.

4. Sprinkle Drinking Chocolate or Shaved Chocolate

Top off your cappuccino froth with a light dusting of high quality drinking chocolate or freshly shaved milk or dark chocolate.

Enjoying and Pairing Your Cappuccino

Sipping and Savouring

When enjoying a cappuccino, take small sips to appreciate the harmony between the espresso, steamed milk, and milk froth.

Notice how the milk components enhance the espresso’s natural flavours while adding a touch of sweetness and creaminess.

Pairing Suggestions

A cappuccino pairs well with a variety of sweet or savoury treats, such as pastries, croissants, or biscotti.

Feel free to experiment with different pairings to find your perfect cappuccino accompaniment.

Variations of the Cappuccino

Flavoured Cappuccinos

While the traditional cappuccino is enjoyed without added flavours, some coffee lovers choose to incorporate a variety of syrups, such as chocolate, caramel, or hazelnut, to add an extra layer of sweetness and complexity to the drink.

Alternative Milks

Cappuccinos can also be made with alternative milk options, such as almond, soy, oat, or coconut milk.

These alternatives cater to those with dietary restrictions or preferences and may also impart unique flavour nuances to the cappuccino.

Size and Strength

The cappuccino can be customized to suit personal preferences for size and strength. Some coffee shops offer “small” or “large” cappuccinos, adjusting the milk-to-espresso ratio accordingly.

Others may add an extra shot of espresso for a bolder coffee experience.

The Cappuccino in Modern Coffee Culture

Specialty Coffee Scene

As specialty coffee culture continues to flourish, the cappuccino remains a favourite among coffee enthusiasts for its balanced, velvety, and approachable nature.

The cappuccino’s popularity has inspired a range of innovative adaptations and flavour combinations, further enriching the world of espresso-based beverages.

Cappuccino vs. Other Espresso-Based Drinks

The cappuccino is closely related to other espresso-based drinks, such as the latte and flat white. The primary difference between these beverages lies in their espresso-to-milk ratios and milk textures.

The latte has a lower espresso-to-milk ratio with a thinner layer of microfoam, while the flat white features a higher espresso-to-milk ratio and a more integrated, creamy milk texture.

Our Conclusion on the Cappuccino

The cappuccino is a classic and captivating coffee creation that showcases the harmonious marriage of espresso, steamed milk, and milk froth.

By understanding the origins, components, and variations of the cappuccino, you can better appreciate this delightful beverage and confidently order or create it at home.

Whether you’re a seasoned espresso aficionado or a newcomer to the coffee scene, the cappuccino offers a balanced and velvety experience that is sure to tantalize your taste buds and awaken your senses.